English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



侏羅紀善攀鳥龍類揭示膜質翅膀在恐龍中的演化

文章來源:古脊椎動物與古人類研究所   發布時間:2019-05-09  【字號:     】  

  2019年《自然》(Nature)以封面文章發表了中國科學院古脊椎動物與古人類研究所王敏、鄒晶梅、徐星、周忠和的研究成果:侏羅紀善攀鳥龍類揭示膜質翅膀在恐龍中的演化,展示了在恐龍—鳥類演化歷程中出現大量意想不到的適應飛行的嘗試,與之對應演化出差異顯著的骨骼—表皮衍生物組合。

  在脊椎動物漫長的演化史中,翼龍、鳥類和蝙蝠獨立演化出了形態迥異的飛行結構。相較翼龍和蝙蝠不完整的化石記錄,隨著不斷發現的帶羽毛恐龍和早期鳥類化石,尤其得益于我國中晚侏羅世的燕遼生物群和早白堊世的熱河生物群,有關鳥類飛行起源這一重要科學問題取得了重要進展,而善攀鳥龍類的發現則揭示了“一條匪夷所思的征服藍天之旅”。善攀鳥龍類(Scansoriopterygidae)是恐龍家族中最為怪異的類群,生活在中—晚侏羅世,迄今發現的僅有三個屬種:寧城樹棲龍(Epidendrosaurus ningchengensis)、胡氏耀龍(Epidexipteryx hui)和奇翼龍(Yi qi)。善攀鳥龍類形態特殊,如頭骨高聳、四肢纖細、第三手指(最外側的手指)加長、古老的2-3-4手指指式、尾骨縮短等,儼然是恐龍和鳥類的“混合體”,而它一度被認為是和鳥類具有最近親緣關系的獸腳類恐龍。但上述標本或不完整,或屬于幼年個體,大量形態特征難以觀察,造成它在演化樹上的位置撲朔迷離。2015年徐星等命名的奇翼龍更加為這一類群增添神秘色彩。奇翼龍的前肢附著翼膜,還具有一根棒狀長骨,這樣的長骨在其它恐龍(包括鳥類)中沒有對應的同源結構。因此,奇翼龍被復原成類似翼龍那樣具有膜質翅膀而能夠滑翔。但奇翼龍的標本僅有一件,保存不完整,因此對于棒狀長骨和翼膜的結構還存有爭議。

  2017年周忠和帶領的基礎科學中心團隊在遼寧晚侏羅世地層考察時獲得一件新化石。經過長達一年的室內修理、實驗和對比研究,研究團隊認為其代表一新的善攀鳥龍類,將其命名為長臂渾元龍(Ambopteryx longibrachium)(意指翼龍那樣膜質翅膀和恐龍的混合體)。渾元龍發現于燕遼生物群晚侏羅世早期的海房溝組(距今約1.63億年),其正型標本是目前已知最完整的善攀鳥龍類化石,提供大量形態和生態學信息。渾元龍體長約32厘米,體重約306克。渾元龍在肱骨近端關節面、手指和腰帶形態方面明顯不同于其它善攀鳥龍類,并且具有原始鳥類那樣的尾綜骨,如此縮短的尾骨能進一步將身體重心前移,有利于在飛行/滑翔時保持穩定。更為重要的是,研究人員在渾元龍上發現了和奇翼龍相似的棒狀長骨和翼膜(翼膜中保存有色素體),這一新發現為棒狀長骨和翼膜在善攀鳥龍類中的出現提供了確切無疑的證據。渾元龍體內保存有胃石和疑似尚未完全消化的骨質胃容物,這是在善攀鳥龍類中首次發現的與食性相關的證據,研究人員推測其為雜食性。

  渾元龍的前肢異常加長,甚至超過了中生代多數鳥類。研究人員在對比恐龍前肢時,發現善攀鳥龍類的前肢比例構成非常奇特,而這樣的差異是否與翼膜的出現有關?為了證實這一猜測,王敏等采用基于系統發育關系的主成分分析方法來討論中生代虛骨龍類(包括鳥類)四肢長度的演化,特別是在接近飛行起源時有哪些顯著變化。系統發育主成分分析是在傳統的主成分分析上剔除親緣關系,最大程度保證采樣點的獨立性,同時復原祖先節點的特征狀態,從而展現不同類群的演化趨勢。研究結果顯示,自副鳥類(Paraves,即包括所有鳥類,但不包括竊蛋龍類的最廣義類群)開始,前肢開始加長,但僅有善攀鳥龍類的加長程度接近中生代鳥類,而這一程度其它非鳥龍類恐龍從未獲得。善攀鳥龍類前肢的加長主要源自肱骨和尺骨;在鳥類、馳龍類或者傷齒龍類中,則是掌骨的加長,而這些類群的前肢具有飛羽。研究人員認為善攀鳥龍類通過加長的肱骨和尺骨、第三手指,與棒狀長骨來附著膜質的翅膀,而鳥類、馳龍類和傷齒龍類則需要較長的掌骨來附著飛羽,顯示出兩種不同的飛行模式(“膜質翅膀和短掌骨”、“羽毛翅膀和長掌骨”)對前肢結構產生的巨大改變。

  已知的善攀鳥龍類均生活在晚侏羅世,類似的膜質翅膀沒有在白堊紀的恐龍中出現。由飛羽構成的翅膀自晚侏羅世出現就延續到白堊紀,進過漫長的演化最終形成了鳥類的羽翼,使后者成為多樣性最豐富的現生四足動物。善攀鳥龍類獨特的飛行結構代表了飛行演化的一次短暫嘗試。

  該研究得到國家自然科學基金基礎科學中心項目(克拉通破壞與陸地生物演化)、優秀青年科學基金項目、中科院青年創新促進會以及巖石圈演化國家重點實驗室(華北克拉通破壞與燕遼-熱河生物群演化)的支持。

 

1. 《自然》當期雜志封面:古脊椎所發現侏羅紀具膜質翅膀的恐龍 

 

  2. a, 長臂渾元龍正型標本;b, 骨骼復原圖;c. 膜質翼膜色素體;d. 骨質胃容物組織切片. bn, 骨質胃容物; gs, 胃石; mw, 膜質翼膜; st, 棒狀長骨(王敏供圖) 

 

  3. 中生代虛骨龍類系統樹和肢骨演化:在飛行起源時,副鳥類不同類群顯示出不同的前肢加長過程:善攀鳥龍類通過肱骨加長,結合第三手指和棒狀長骨附著膜質翅膀;而馳龍類、傷齒龍類和鳥類則通過掌骨的加長以附著羽狀翅膀(王敏供圖)

 

4. 長臂混元龍復原圖(張宗達供圖)



(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

彩609www.c6097.com www.9573.biz | www.449965.com | www.682623.com | 227148.com | 819426.com | www.cp8918.com | www.14857.com | www.069075.com | www.058089.com | www.141213.com | www.356518.com | www.811487.com | www.885249.com | 264631.com | 960554.com | 275307.com | www.83654.com | 福利彩票www.99677y.com | www.aq45.com | www.6vc.com | www.69ej.com | www.427175.com | www.735723.com | www.804303.com | 45hs.com | 668930.com | 324173.com | www.so51.com | www.38cd.com | www.56sx.com | www.177811.com | www.874355.com | 75866.com | 366199.com | 067657.com | 826849.com | www.cp719.com | www.a28.vip | www.69hd.com | www.52513.cc | 426622.com | 407661.com | 176402.com | 766706.com | www.049480.com | www.47hi.com | www.3616.cc | www.9752.com | www.40787.com | www.304224.com | www.u84.com | www.93sv.com | www.8092.vip | www.88232.cc | www.062870.com | www.057545.com | www.138377.com | www.501003.com | www.586115.com | 154477.com | www.975318.com | 758009.com | 500彩票www.50026z.com | 500彩票www.50024q.com | 516892.com | 爱彩乐www.152918.com | www.50mf.com | www.4450.cc | www.02138.com | www.048544.com | www.138459.com | www.385201.com | www.669322.com | www.765455.com | www.870913.com | 213708.com | 039471.com | 大玩家彩票www.84499y.com | 99彩票www.528112.com | www.zj0.com | www.mt03.com | www.29gp.com | www.63xk.com | www.5636.xyz | www.6014.biz | www.9409.net | www.64731.com | www.310973.com | www.357567.com | www.721955.com | www.739401.com | www.813196.com | 054955.com | 396655.com | 308757.com | 680613.com | 网易彩票www.36788y.com | www.ew44.com | www.39rt.com | www.77.tv | www.2404.org | www.8388.hk | www.4322.vip | www.2099.love | www.58245.com | www.119445.com | www.162081.com | www.254857.com | www.318514.com | www.510007.com | www.548550.com | www.931992.com | 755486.com | cai0404.com | 437996.com | www.037759.com | www.db25.com | www.3678.biz | www.4399.cn | www.6489.vip | www.7582.biz | www.3064.org | www.4839.biz | www.9768.club | www.08986.com | www.38635.cc | www.002543.cc | www.098002.com | www.149434.com | www.261523.com | www.492633.com | www.539808.com | www.579242.com | 421486.com | 25474.com | 福彩网www.5522u.cc | 6号彩票www.666407.com | www.tr3.com | 209896.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.810523.com | www.po36.com | www.142.online | www.61537.com | www.169075.com | www.318516.com | www.391150.com | www.856671.com | 151939.com | 428572.com | 524365.com | 中国福利彩票www.33588y.com | 051365.com | 747625.com | 967454.com | 529306.com | 354606.com | 606533.com | 554008.com | www.kk33.cc | www.f64.shop | www.hi10.com | www.dw7.com | 500彩票www.701541.com | 爱购彩票www.355274.com | 859276.com | 632816.com | 077012.com | 362076.com | 550467.com | 639734.com | 862661.com | 538873.com | 033903.com | wx03.cc | 079896.com | 562617.com | 907654.com | www.mw8.com | 818合彩www.www.9889hc.com | www.nq77.com | 444149.com | www.496451.com | www.cai0044.com | www.95iq.com | www.290.cx | www.21442.com | www.48073.com | www.030625.com | www.105257.com | www.193364.com | www.369857.com | www.601314.com | www.657293.com | www.780802.com | www.800646.com | www.706996.com | 791487.com | 198663.com | 399562.cc | 894927.com | www.v881888.com | 219609.com | 061754.com | 390234.com | 659854.com | 352895.com | 网易彩票www.071wy.com | 586554.com | 388213.com | 799449.com | 464502.com | 841809.com | 359827.com | 981342.com | 391862.com | www.999969.com | www.985508.com | www.919120.com | 55288.com | www.982651.com | www.899593.com | www.811234.com | www.356495.com | www.64998.com | www.8280.in | www.04ik.com | 255871.com | www.487111.com | www.2008.mobi | 482234.com | www.715275.com | www.365328.com | www.161136.com | www.71220.com | 357.club | www.399954.com | www.7878.pro | www.mh46.com | 4426.cc | 126941.com | www.699739.com | www.17767.cc | www.967121.com | www.120216.com | www.7798.pw | www.rx46.com | 378248.com | 0992.date | www.200262.com | www.537292.com | www.609861.com | www.897658.com | 818合彩www.www.9889hc.com | www.35qg.com | www.cg92.com | www.m21.hk | www.rt47.com | www.6ki.com | www.05hq.com | www.49.cm | www.2289.com | www.63up.com | www.y34.cc | www.yg30.com | www.il93.com | www.oj99.com | www.82uh.com | www.0955.top | www.5694.vip | www.94ec.com | www.37cd.cc | www.43ds.com | www.0567.in | www.24524.com | www.129286.com | www.233719.com | www.234908.com | www.160810.com | www.172131.com | www.229974.com | www.200037.cc | www.306099.com | www.303787.com | www.733001.com | www.658554.com | www.781791.com | www.713129.com | www.788512.com | www.813551.com | www.733771.com | www.845326.com | www.985923.com | www.937683.com | www.852958.com | 324662.com | 017081.com | 049809.com | www.979256.com | www.919571.com | www.839896.com | 646364.com | www.966495.com | www.870928.com | 826276.com | 971529.com | 019342.com | 461877.com | 567425.com | www.966908.com | www.781814.com | 4992.biz | 210153.com | 993457.com | www.987863.com | www.908917.com | 569213.com | 764118.com | xg83.cc | 189096.com | 027135.com | 162039.com | www.980945.com | www.872067.com | www.902632.com | 413600.com | 026239.com | 5820.cc | 106345.com | 552324.com | www.876214.com | 488870.com | www.837564.com | www.912607.com | www.757245.com | www.396325.com | www.710080.com | www.661232.com | www.734045.com | www.645939.com | www.750928.com | www.866718.com | www.949645.com | www.838229.com | www.888846.com | www.821115.com | www.704509.com | www.540333.cc | www.581875.com | www.698928.com | www.589302.com | 468222.com | www.892348.com | www.911903.com | www.733012.com | www.578766.com | www.543575.com | www.358143.com | www.395038.com | www.367778.com | www.382992.com | www.340121.com | www.182318.com | www.234533.com | www.055342.com | www.58910.com | www.49137.cc | www.19989.com | www.20253.com | www.235940.com | www.266705.com | www.216853.com | www.121952.com | www.56651.cc | www.74986.com | www.68347.com | www.48440.com | www.076759.com | www.363917.com | www.568168.com | www.438544.com | www.296774.com | www.209720.com | www.115062.com | www.113488.com | www.58210.com | www.52516.cc | www.28879.com | www.078034.com | www.015731.com | www.136003.com | www.101697.com | www.354043.com | www.239586.com | www.109783.com | www.78696.cc | www.30123.com | www.86232.com | www.06722.com | www.013.site | www.1643.org | www.1046.org | www.0791.me | www.33302.com | www.081752.com | www.013732.com | www.84465.com | www.71392.com | www.181603.com | www.383615.com | www.643576.com | www.622737.com | www.477770.com | www.349022.com | www.305329.com | www.261673.com | www.454133.com | www.359364.com | www.538573.com | www.533870.com | www.595008.com | www.608977.com | www.969476.com | www.922459.com | www.856630.com | 158611.com | 730221.com | 644470.com | 931501.com | 24253.cc--24253.cc | www.81yd.com | www.27er.com | www.yh13.cc | www.2zb.com | www.j99.com | www.a34.shop | www.gt12.com | www.2173.wang | www.1892.top | www.0945.cc | www.30344.com | www.37112.cc | www.69440.com | www.186734.com | www.92641.com | www.83sv.com | 凤凰Vwww.www.fh7557.com | 589243.com | 829365.com | www.kk57.com | www.li25.com | 吉利彩票www.66376h.com | 659568.com | 669246.com | 966930.com | www.911339.com | www.855327.com | www.65858a.com | www.501317.com | 33356.cc | 394618.com | www.909280.com | www.691131.com | www.521901.com | www.358727.com | www.545489.com | www.616745.com | www.814344.com | 红旗彩票www.39957g.com | www.532633.com | www.030706.com | www.702265.com | www.610206.com | www.241003.com | www.65211.cc | www.zz31.cc | 874352.com | 33399.com | www.699819.com | www.695755.com | www.333539.com | www.194855.com | www.564163.com | www.233042.com | www.98133.com | www.22mu.com | 685601.com | www.735329.com | www.318880.com | www.036533.com | www.037639.com | 99244.cc | www.880575.com | www.736646.com | www.883985.com | www.667656.com | www.518494.com | www.180199.com | www.777851.com | www.403705.com | www.026245.com | www.088105.com | www.52433.cc | www.093220.com | www.570004.com | www.881470.com | 025455.com | www.hx83.cc | www.12ay.com | 大赢家彩票网www.544089.com | 70pv.com | 251355.com | 083860.com | 306749.com | 208114.com | www.856098.com | www.957364.com | www.803715.com | www.680776.com | www.828185.com | www.663927.com | www.565206.com | www.463595.com | www.629783.com | www.678796.com | www.511445.com | www.307011.com | www.126494.com | 093667.com | www.867252.com | www.888431.com | www.805962.com | www.954566.com | www.832228.com | www.659146.com | www.874960.com | www.800304.com | www.626621.com | www.582517.com | www.506567.cc | www.396737.com | www.425338.com | www.226513.com | www.068572.com | www.42366.com | www.045178.com | www.072023.com | www.66485.com | www.37980.com | www.18917.cc | www.77qi.cc | www.6537.bid | www.14hb.com | www.30oa.com | 彩票5www.550347.com | 88663.com | www.995088.com | www.789887.com | www.695875.com | www.508842.com | www.319548.com | www.217823.com | www.020127.com | www.9781.biz | www.36yz.com | www.6873.org | www.47lv.com | 71057.com | 543069.cc | 566480.com | 751284.com | 03409.com | np28.com | www.949530.com | www.689503.com | www.501908.com | www.261703.com | www.129015.com | www.330333.com | www.335449.com | www.115990.com | www.41461.com | www.7090.vip | www.5654.vip | www.33au.com | 500彩票www.50066c.com | 740100.com | www.850403.com | www.855619.com | www.939779.com | www.734813.com | www.535125.com | www.429068.com | www.783826.com | www.578108.com | www.370927.com | www.177192.com | www.117584.com | www.82222.cc | www.320177.com | www.604242.com | www.586063.com | www.533855.com | www.719783.com | www.589583.com | www.676838.com | www.293393.com | www.37174.com | www.cs25.com | 057369.com | www.948646.com | 314240.com | 854733.com | 338938.com | www.935219.com | www.739034.com | www.578486.com | www.385265.com | www.398608.com | www.371779.com | www.325467.com | www.172655.com | www.121940.com | www.000261.com | www.299727.com | www.183908.com | www.331654.com | www.427033.com | www.89773.cc | www.11ag.com | www.947113.com | www.510288.com | www.083489.com | www.ka48.com | 349343.com | 984432.com | www.895802.com | www.765733.cc | www.494455.com | www.188941.com | www.21413.com | www.44wx.cc | 中彩网www.91233l.com | 16nx.com | 241228.com | www.833698.com | www.614353.com | www.513762.com | www.268637.com | www.062679.com | www.8079.cm | www.17cf.cc | www.jv37.com | 890525.com | 560963.com | www.873590.com | www.993948.com | www.739469.com | www.560431.com | www.250818.com | www.039023.com | www.4257.cn | www.a55.pw | 379267.com | 067616.com | www.946221.com | www.691432.com | www.420030.com | www.337344.com | www.223165.com | www.77891.com | www.6804.cc | www.xv53.com | 爱购彩www.23636g.com | 005644.com | www.872095.com | www.732038.com | www.536943.com | www.258270.com | www.024021.com | 彩客网www.230966.com | 525088.com | www.635916.com | www.281011.com | www.15415.com | www.983708.com | www.88144.cc | 810814.com | www.666306.com | www.191227.com | www.24725.com | www.aa35.com | www.505244.com | www.65ag.com | www.882707.com | www.442201.com | www.002504.cc | www.vr95.com | 187627.com | www.206987.com | www.t92.cn | www.616868.com | www.36622.cc | 天下彩www.340680.com | www.923362.com | www.419163.com | www.134622.com | 彩神购彩www.csgc7.com | www.369694.com | www.44lj.com | www.923452.com | www.385601.com | www.223489.com | www.5116.vip | 645360.com | www.102341.com | 418603.com | www.114180.com | fa3.cc | 066871.com | www.967659.com | www.815432.com | www.667220.com | www.460863.com | www.301520.com | www.128342.com | www.002184.cc | www.48424.com | www.004246.com | www.13523.cc | www.90zm.cc | www.ue45.com | 531057.com | 868226.com | 56wz.com | www.957216.com | www.699935.com | www.589583.com | www.386176.com | www.438146.com | www.141247.com | www.272722.com | www.172276.com | www.108932.com | www.031636.com | www.71504.com | www.0458.bid | www.1092.wang | www.fc32.com | 554011.com | 942812.com | www.861171.com | www.846193.com | www.705061.com | www.783036.com | www.559808.com | www.228699.com | www.214468.com | www.71556.cc | www.29098.com | www.005224.com | www.3266.me | www.z24.org | 582785.com | 143677.com | www.955688.com | 947792.com | www.935958.com | www.706021.com | www.477739.com | www.308382.com | www.125028.com | www.219948.com | www.111913.com | www.89331.cc | www.6288.vip | www.q55.gg | www.j15.me | www.di04.com | www.kl30.com | 500彩票www.352477.com | 561736.com | 258880.com | www.982446.com | www.796544.com | www.572662.com | www.332855.com | www.160550.com | www.250712.com | www.043853.com | www.8419.loan | www.78jf.com | 16彩票www.331616a.com | www.32vr.com | www.cai2346.com | 全民汇彩票www.52303b.com | www.xpj728.com | www.992110.com | www.785361.com | www.683392.com | www.458298.com | www.297696.com | www.075539.com | www.50117.com | www.7805.vip | www.81ei.com | www.cw58.com | www.gk13.com | 995942.com | 018473.com | www.959516.com | 434896.com | www.976194.com | www.751175.com | www.520132.com | www.275291.com | www.051091.com | www.68339.cc | www.179759.com | www.157530.com | www.074502.com | www.06297.com | www.40eg.com | www.97zt.com | www.ns89.com | www.14tj.com | 彩票天天乐www.66yfz.com | 706799.com | www.964655.com | 254807.com | 3572.biz | www.979935.com | www.952904.com | www.567525.com | www.221175.com | www.76696.cc | www.1234.cx | www.71206.com | www.78tz.com | 338043.com | www.379736.com | www.780010.com | www.954317.com | www.587207.com | www.275619.com | www.082870.com | www.223864.com | www.059273.com | www.3990.me | www.45027.com | www.77ky.cc | www.sj10.com | 天天彩票www.106326.com | 868442.com | 447358.com | 931257.com | www.917663.com | www.844324.com | www.467258.com | www.193977.com | www.93xz.com | 576942.com | www.752381.com | www.379675.com | www.300321.com | www.53653.cc | www.84zq.com | www.cai43.cc | www.996639.com | www.646268.com | www.350118.com | www.68008.com | www.3zr.com | 惠民彩票www.hm3377.com | www.986273.com | www.588237.com | www.290551.com | www.0160.org | www.791942.com | www.283081.com | www.5749.vip | 435517.com | www.883971.com | www.691272.com | www.249828.com | www.rn43.com | www.575780.com | www.067608.com | www.020121.com | www.11ua.com | 044316.com | www.628344.com | www.115773.com | www.19995.com | www.44aj.com | 355410.com | www.438916.com | www.0683.org | 557874.com | www.951473.com | www.383468.com | www.017677.com | www.45641.com | 69111.com | www.631835.com | www.433029.com | www.008530.com | www.36373.com | www.ny25.com | 107019.com | www.680739.com | www.386868.com | www.507165.com | www.137740.com | www.070784.com | www.0815.xyz | www.pn81.com | 天朝彩票www.cp5658.cc | 36187.com | www.660722.com | www.545400.com | www.237395.com | www.25912.cc | www.51785.cc | www.7629.biz | www.b27.org | www.3485.xyz | 926911.com | www.908939.com | www.785960.com | 308535.com | www.877971.com | www.969913.com | www.925180.com | www.739704.com | www.577537.com | www.264073.com | www.143317.com | www.024703.com | www.107811.com | www.224990.com | www.003059.com | www.5643.com | www.bm80.com | 490125.com | 669641.com | 642350.com | www.859533.com | www.796508.com | 201471.com | 556543.com | www.829055.com | www.520407.com | www.625021.com | www.522291.com | www.550406.com | www.686018.com | www.542848.com | www.440155.com | www.90521.com | www.143.com | 福彩www.86267q.com | 550491.com | www.711365.cc | www.321989.com | www.94399.cc | www.u57.club | 958304.com | www.739662.com | www.335254.com | www.206791.com | www.12161.com | www.mw03.com | 957764.com | www.770689.com | www.190037.com | www.7136.cc | 鑫亿彩www.617069.com | www.974349.com | www.536277.com | www.070164.com | www.855.vip | 中国福利彩票www.33588j.com | www.984542.com | www.566154.com | www.116351.com | www.0931.site | 500彩票www.52072u.com | www.984061.com | www.547155.com | www.693001.com | www.249323.com | www.22307.com | www.fz13.com | www.969228.com | www.552596.com | www.111783.com | www.2128.org | 500彩票www.377503.com | www.982434.com | www.541321.com | www.573623.com | www.251359.com | www.052775.com | www.8476.xyz | www.um55.com | 552484.com | www.6594.win | www.gd44.com | 974725.com | 605571.com | www.927866.com | www.608859.com | www.271695.com | www.79633.com | www.6406.vip | www.jj00.com | 422196.com | 344611.com | www.893573.com | www.619238.com | www.537762.com | www.206854.com | www.99909.com | www.22zf.com | www.134177.com | 066596.com | www.887705.com | www.723285.com | www.505792.com | www.191215.com | www.36515.cc | www.4935.top | www.mu02.com | 顺丰彩票www.sfk3.com | 120222.com | www.772942.com | www.512708.com | www.206893.com | www.50789.com | www.5220.vip | www.tq00.com | 986732.com | 25616.com | www.792563.com | www.768228.com | www.390583.com | www.199908.com | www.267250.com | www.87132.com | www.053.loan | www.ce1.com | 951814.com | www.809350.com | www.676001.com | www.657539.com | www.322051.com | www.079399.com | www.3770.vip | www.js0.com | 0003.pw | 99950.com | www.712269.com | www.428979.com | www.120827.com | www.33668.com | www.72991.cc | www.lw78.cc | 967174.com | www.657622.com | www.239999.com | 301121.com | www.360835.com | www.si11.com | www.668726.com | www.400191.com | www.73078.com | www.03ml.com | www.912749.com | www.7808.net | www.734011.com | www.73gy.com | www.770420.com | www.155465.com | www.6771.cn | 470511.com | www.806613.com | www.86689.cc | www.926533.com | www.70255.com | www.it74.com | www.985808.com | www.374896.com | www.206480.com | 930047.com | www.127220.com | www.bu80.com | www.886864.com | www.678392.com | www.102064.com | www.me80.com | www.580929.com | www.9538.me | 325495.com | www.681258.com | www.110579.com | www.zz73.com | www.843555.com | www.029096.com | www.971329.com | www.372580.com | www.66134.com | www.cb69.com | www.966894.com | www.080152.com | 509950.com | www.74798.com | www.k07.top | 298070.com | www.677133.com | www.101079.com | 130864.com | www.243993.com | 420561.com | www.585762.com | www.040365.com | www.65uy.com | 66758.com | www.395234.com | www.jw11.cc | www.527636.com | www.83ij.com | ss22.cc | www.629121.com | www.316326.com | www.3939.cn | www.744007.cc | www.54xn.com | www.552048.com | www.cai0544.com | www.329236.com | 561019.com | www.252126.com | www.92cv.com | 243698.com | www.506780.com | www.38182.cc | 198313.com | www.069888.cc | www.982303.com | www.088355.com | www.86ze.com | 511040.com | www.155086.com | 747039.com | www.221705.com | 42277.com | www.108271.com | 385345.com | www.96524.com | www.898316.com | www.3909.vip | www.666314.com | www.yn24.com | www.412969.com | www.cp2990.com | www.324358.com | 281077.com | www.134138.com | 664980.com | www.227345.com | www.4285.xyz | 793796.com | www.637950.com | www.252836.com | 254791.com | www.107096.com | www.667288.com | www.128981.com | 易彩集团www.25688k.com | www.950840.com | www.317226.com | www.1292.com | www.cp5454.com | www.375995.com | www.566000.com | www.208899.cc | 934434.com | www.065060.com | 476333.com | www.233554.com | 966503.com | www.032318.com | www.969627.com | www.8811.hk | www.731749.com | www.28lo.com | www.528161.com | 8号彩票www.81520j.com | www.266217.com | 889014.com | www.213057.com | 919761.com | www.91934.com | www.921105.com | www.38156.com | 073335.com | www.705945.com | www.206263.com | www.64iq.com | www.784883.com | www.1883.in | www.741393.com | www.09.cc | www.500093.cc | 网易彩票www.080wy.com | www.256264.com | 320733.com | www.041556.com | www.955430.com | www.38528.com | 07il.com | www.682592.com | www.369962.com | www.09680.com | www.917424.com | www.07576.com | www.770432.com | www.26rk.com | www.629365.cc | www.280036.com | www.93sv.com | 842211.com | www.440844.com | www.lh11.cc | www.460096.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.735037.com | www.279903.com | 43745.com | www.044666.com | www.948189.com | www.5310.vip | www.721512.com | www.z88.top | www.507123.com | 网易彩票www.177534.com | www.505479.com | 爱彩www.013ac.com | www.238166.com | 969145.com | www.026011.com | www.936888.cc | www.9952.cm | www.736543.com | www.09ig.com | www.577779.com | www.cp368.com | www.318527.com | 249468.com | www.101565.com | www.990491.com | www.27672.cc | www.748601.com | www.08su.com | www.456155.com | www.yb27.com | www.502653.com | 彩客博www.8667s.com | www.326922.com | 843422.com | www.066155.com | www.963287.com | www.7249.cn | www.758801.com | www.19ce.com | www.456683.com | 50347.cc | www.218702.com | 006566.com | www.036102.com | www.921622.com | www.918189.com | www.486132.com | www.059205.com | www.90uc.cc | 福利彩票www.99677p.com | 954180.com | www.963799.com | www.554671.com | www.126282.com | www.0383.cm | 878229.com | www.956312.com | www.526695.com | www.565727.com | www.086552.com | www.45hg.com | 598974.com | www.518079.com | www.13833.com | 663545.com | www.cp7978.com | 025442.com | www.606536.com | www.111740.com | www.65od.com | 33118.com | www.712964.com | www.225669.com | www.2384.xyz | 143377.com | www.819483.com | www.318342.com | www.319361.com | www.09100.com | 购彩在线www.66332i.com | 972435.com | www.717668.com | www.210719.com | www.3384.cm | 997094.com | www.898226.com | www.369448.com | www.040345.com | www.4ay.com | 332796.com | www.714922.com | www.255603.com | www.36225.com | www.cp5679.com | www.964501.com | www.455961.com | www.85029.com | www.ij69.com | 55938.com--45553.com | www.555341.com | www.122108.com | www.5499.net | 761447.com | www.874993.com | www.443719.com | www.122943.com | www.3439.cm | 620250.com | www.796963.com | www.288376.com | www.6707.vip | www.km69.com | 701749.com | www.583092.com | www.112703.com | www.73zj.com | 333144.com | www.706422.com | www.171222.com | www.26272.cc | www.99yx.cc | 569179.com | www.853369.com | www.579970.com | www.086111.com | www.11dp.com | 235495.com | www.637059.com | www.486904.com | www.036564.com | www.b57.loan | 934023.com | www.878575.cc | www.600066.cc | www.089105.com | www.01cf.com | 845411.com | www.611985.com | www.396323.com | www.90117.com | www.iu56.com | 181066.com | www.542543.com | www.026065.com | www.x18.pw | 035552.com | www.798168.com | www.284505.com | www.7373.tv | www.013625.com | www.874691.com | www.479658.com | www.78091.com | www.g15.org | 345730.com | www.588461.com | www.076626.com | www.zi46.com | www.385288.com | www.591775.cc | www.191483.com | www.0234.tv | 447616.com | www.813484.com | www.374058.com | www.51983.cc | www.lt11.com | 911712.com | www.556157.com | www.025550.com | www.xi32.com | 610616.com | www.593386.com | www.172975.com | www.7758.vip | 595092.com | www.794508.com | www.231342.com | www.1863.live | fb28.com | www.697821.com | www.129487.com | www.49wd.com | 790530.com | www.738281.com | www.195155.com | www.99wi.com | 615957.com | 111812.com | www.511191.com | www.72267.cc | www.cd56.com | www.981084.com | www.397316.com | www.53592.cc | www.it2.cc | www.933903.com | www.348360.com | www.22301.com | 手机购彩www.c705.cc | www.850155.com | www.506041.com | www.121857.com | www.5137.org | 308367.com | www.766554.com | www.220198.com | www.8974.biz | 592207.com | www.805709.com | www.304380.com | www.5440.vip | 8058.la | www.705133.com | www.162149.com | www.013168.com | www.xv58.com | www.987230.com | www.411966.com | www.047858.com | www.rr80.com | www.975894.com | www.309230.com | www.62fz.com | www.975437.com | www.254257.com | www.33902.com | 全民汇彩票www.52303k.com | www.855632.com | www.837939.com | www.226908.com | www.153.vip | 5400.cc | www.791422.com | www.201245.com | www.52kw.com | 799952.com | www.566517.com | www.031980.com | www.kw22.com | www.974340.com | www.365634.cc | www.049577.com | www.71sg.com | 653019.com | www.586581.com | www.065779.com | www.42sd.com | 276382.com | www.530628.com | www.96211.cc | 大赢家彩票平台www.657320.com | www.851606.com | www.467435.com | www.95536.com | www.cp5020.com | www.892220.com | www.275499.com | www.1598.cc | 984873.com | www.800063.cc | www.212298.com | www.63uo.com | 887249.com | www.544983.com | www.60480.com | www.00qu.com | www.472222.com | www.531287.com | www.52955.cc | 凤凰彩票www.77803h.com | www.853666.cc | www.503563.com | www.43509.com | 128314.com | www.970970.com | www.365820.com | www.58975.cc | www.cp4343.com | www.875613.com | www.362126.com | www.53682.cc | 500彩票www.647377.com | www.876612.cc | www.516068.com | www.036047.com | www.io60.com | 276666.com | www.604132.com | www.98838.com | 天下彩www.505680.com | www.831223.com | www.236587.com | www.86bk.com | 881642.com | www.538353.com | www.54788.cc | www.77px.com | 220835.com | www.508552.com | www.68770.com | www.2550.cn | 369364.com | www.670277.com | www.045105.com | www.jq56.com | www.997973.com | www.367995.com | www.33360.cc | 85148.com | www.766435.com | www.165189.com | www.039.tv | 03mj.com | www.791364.com | www.977249.com | www.402150.com | www.72983.com | www.gx77.com | 870984.com | www.518189.com | www.87710.com | www.li87.com | www.998978.com | www.535134.com | www.002165.com | www.3721.net | 4789.pw | www.700547.com | www.125971.com | www.tm58.com | www.978394.com | www.577186.com | www.027745.com | www.bt32.com | 5984.biz | www.770528.com | www.521595.com | www.019671.com | www.ik29.com | www.947704.com | www.375392.com | www.94839.com | www.hw06.com | www.997354.com | www.433320.com | www.273202.com | www.3198.xyz | 017515.com | 383291.com | www.557771.cc | www.028724.com | www.3jx.com | ok88.us | www.865318.com | www.233011.com | www.509.mobi | 809357.com | www.589609.com | www.025682.com | www.cp119.com | www.865661.com | www.646132.com | www.285591.com | www.2201.vip | 130915.com | www.680756.com | www.194944.com | www.29yn.com | 671362.com | www.579614.com | www.84683.com | 大赢家彩票www.799243.com | www.847129.com | www.337449.com | www.7005.vip | 972741.com | www.772984.com | www.171222.com | www.59.win | 565848.com | www.526407.com | www.025176.com | www.pc08.com | www.972863.com | www.363383.com | www.24300.com | 866760.com | www.778034.com | www.172836.cc | www.3050.bid | 69bo.cc | www.609078.com | www.019019.com | www.42vd.com | 639757.com | www.574505.com | www.293342.com | www.2199.in | 552420.com | www.781767.com | www.172836.cc | 103080.com | www.8621.cc | www.953445.com | www.118855.com | 311407.com | www.650363.com | www.602154.com | www.cp119.com | www.211350.com | www.4871.cc | www.994410.com | www.435881.com | www.4059.cc | 067125.com | www.200833.com | 347400.com | www.20247.cc | www.698057.com | www.37583.com | 567245.com | www.730255.com | www.071918.com | 772993.com | www.075676.com | www.896881.com | www.97ss.cc | www.902389.com | www.055392.com | 771774.com | www.564258.com | www.4282.org | www.749765.com | www.tp84.com | www.342478.com | www.hw59.com | www.732963.com | www.44583.com | 949220.com | www.358410.com | www.kg37.com | www.466294.com | 3740.top | www.381762.com | www.83rn.com | www.894459.com | www.062576.com | 293635.com | www.509679.com | 851705.com | www.115838.com | 416422.com | www.338393.com | www.24309.com | 053521.com | www.320362.com | 快彩www.81678k.com | www.188582.com | www.984941.com | www.37856.cc | 104825.com | www.306832.com | www.yx97.com | www.925066.com | www.089042.com | 331927.com | www.41032.com | www.902526.com | www.047858.com | 457101.com | www.559010.com | www.0869.com | www.971154.com | www.1665.me | www.663020.com | www.vm27.com | www.751567.com | www.069960.com | www.ga58.com | www.810560.com | www.011082.com | www.876271.com | www.